The Hundred Languages of Children: the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education

By Loris Malaguzzi (translated by Lella Gandini) Founder of the Reggio Emilia Approach (see more about the author here)

No way. The hundred is there.

The child
is made of one hundred.
The child has
a hundred languages
a hundred hands
a hundred thoughts
a hundred ways of thinking
of playing, of speaking.

A hundred always a hundred
ways of listening
of marveling, of loving
a hundred joys
for singing and understanding
a hundred worlds
to discover
a hundred worlds
to invent
a hundred worlds
to dream.

The child has
a hundred languages
(and a hundred hundred hundred more)
but they steal ninety-nine.
The school and the culture
separate the head from the body.
They tell the child:
to think without hands
to do without head
to listen and not to speak
to understand without joy
to love and to marvel
only at Easter and at Christmas.

They tell the child:
to discover the world already there
and of the hundred
they steal ninety-nine.

They tell the child:
that work and play
reality and fantasy
science and imagination
sky and earth
reason and dream
are things
that do not belong together.

And thus they tell the child
that the hundred is not there.
The child says:
No way. The hundred is there.


Vivre sa diversité linguistique et culturelle dès la maternelle – Colloque SFERE 2018

Cette vidéo présente brièvement ma recherche de doctorat en vue d’un poster académique dans le cadre du colloque « Apprentissage et Education » Conditions, contextes et innovations pour la réussite scolaire, universitaire et professionnelle, qui aura lieu le 11-13 avril à Marseille, organisé par la Structure Fédérative d’Études et de Recherches en Éducation de Provence (SFERE-Provence FED 4238) d’Aix-Marseille Université.


3 lessons on Academic Blogging

Some welcomed advice for all those who have or plan to start an academic blog.

Imiscoe PhD Blog

By Yvonne Siemann

Francesco Martino is a web communications manager at EUI.

At this year’s Neuchâtel Graduate Conference on Migration Studies and Mobility of the NCCR Research Center in Neuchâtel/Switzerland, he gave a workshop with the topic “Communicating your research”. During the workshop he presented several tools for academic blogging, but did also give some advice for the publication process. For more information, you can also have a look at Francesco Martino’s personal website. 

What is the advice you would give to a PhD student who wants to start a research blog?

Before you start you should define your audience very well. Then you need to define goals that you want to achieve and tools to measure it. You should not aim just at page views, or likes but you should set concrete goals, like for example more people attending your conference, more people reading your books or more…

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What does it mean to be a PhD Representative within an international network?

The motivations of getting engaged in a leading position within a PhD network at university or in an international research network could differ from one person to another. For me, taking the active role of the PhD Representative within the IMISCOE PhD Network was about having the opportunity to benefit from an informal training in a professional environment at an international level. Therefore, besides the implicit benefits of such experience, as networking with colleagues and professors from all over Europe and more, and adding « a title » to my CV, being the PhD Representative for 2016-2017 allowed me to develop or acquire valuable skills, very useful for an academic career.

In this post, I will list the roles and responsibilities of a PhD Representative. Even though these are directly related to my own experience inside the largest European Network of scholars on migration studies – IMISCOE (International Migration, Integration and Social Cohesion) – most of these tasks are expected to be undertaken by PhD Representatives in general.

  • Public Relations role

The PhD Representative is the first contact internal and external for IMISCOE towards its PhD students. He or she has to combine good binding and communication skills to connect with all initiatives and ambitions within the network and Soundboard, outside the network and within IMISCOE.

  • Board of Directors, Training Committee and PhD Network Liaising

The PhD Representative has the primary role of liaising with the Board of Directors, the Training Committee and the PhD Network in order to enhance communication and collaboration in decision-making within IMISCOE.

a. Emailing with the representatives of the Board of Directors, the members of the Training Committee and the PhD Network members about the planned activities, pilot projects, logistics and financial aspects.

b. Preparing the PhD Network Newsletter several times per year to inform all PhD students inside IMISCOE (total of 844) about the PhD Network activity

c. Checking with the central office about the use of the PhD Network funding

  • Board of Directors Meetings Participation

The IMISCOE Board of Directors represents the highest authority of the network and decides on the network structuring activities. This board meets at least two times during the academic year. The PhD Representative attends these meetings and presents the Mid-term Report and the Annual Report of the PhD Network.

  • Budgeting

The PhD Representative is required to execute and report the use of the PhD Network budget. An annual report of the expenses of the year has to be presented at the winter meeting of the Board of Directors. During the summer meeting of the Board of Directors, the PhD Representative asks for the budget for the upcoming year.

  • Attending and coordinating Soundboard meetings

PhD Representative is part of many decision-making processes inside the PhD Network including Soundboard meetings.  The PhD Soundboard is a council of active members of the PhD Network, having regular meetings (usually via Skype) to discuss ideas to be developed, the following steps, to approve what other groups want to accomplish and to support the PhD Representative.

As an active member of the PhD Network, the representative contributes to the organisation of the PhD Assembly and the PhD Workshop during the IMISCOE Annual conference.

a. Logistics : the PhD representative in collaboration with the Workshop Committee and the local organisers arranges the logistics related to the PhD workshops

b. Soundboard dinner: the PhD representative organises and attends a final face-to-face meeting with the active members before the PhD Workshop

c. Organising and attending the PhD Assembly and other PhD sessions during the Annual Conference

  • Selection process of new members and new PhD Representative

In collaboration with the current members of the PhD Network, the PhD Representative leads the selection process of the new members and the new PhD Representative.

a. Sending the call for application

b. Listing the applicants in the different Working Groups (Workshop Committee, Insights – PhD Blog Team, Nexus-Networking inside IMISCOE, Teaching Reflections)

c. Organising Skype meetings with candidates in order to explain the Representative roles and responsibilities

d. Receiving the applications of PhD Representatives (motivation letter and Representative related skills document) and circulating the applications with the Soundboard members

e. Reorganising the new and former members in the respective Working Groups for the upcoming academic year

  • Commitment kind agreement

The PhD Representative is responsible for consulting with previous year’s representatives and informing new representative towards creating the most effective representation for PhD students inside IMISCOE.





Je vous invite à lire cet article « La double anxiété langagière des immigrants », de Jean-Marc Dewaele et Yeşim Sevinç, 2017.

Un article intéressant sur l’anxiété que les migrants expérimentent à la fois au niveau de la langue dite majoritaire (donc la langue du pays d’accueil, dans cet article les Pays Bas) et au niveau de la langue dite d’héritage (ou langue maternelle, ici le turque).

L’anxiété langagière – “the worry and negative emotional reaction aroused when learning or using a second language” (MacIntyre, 1999: 27) («L’inquiétude et la réaction émotionnelle négative déclenchées lors de l’apprentissage ou l’usage d’une langue seconde»).


Barbara Rogoff – children development and cultural learning

Barbara Rogoff is UCSC Foundation Distinguished Professor of Psychology. She is a Fellow of the National Academy of Education, Association for Psychological Sciences, American Anthropological Association, American Psychological Association, and American Educational Research Asociation. She has been Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Kellogg Fellow, Spencer Fellow, and Osher Fellow of the Exploratorium. She has served as Editor of Human Development and committee member on the Science of Learning for the U.S. National Academy of Science. She received the 2013 Award for Distinguished Lifetime Contributions to Cultural and Contextual Factors in Child Development, from the Society for Research in Child Development. Her recent books have also received major awards: Learning Together: Children and Adults in a School Community (Oxford, 2001, Finalist for the Maccoby Award of Division 7 of the American Psychological Association); The Cultural Nature of Human Development (Oxford, 2003; William James Book Award of Division 1 of the American Psychological Association); and Developing Destinies: A Mayan Midwife and Town (Oxford, 2011; Maccoby Award of Division 7 of the American Psychological Association).

In this short video (Worth Publishers) Rogoff explains that children are members of cultural communities. In order to understand child development, we have to see how they  learn the practices of their communities. This happens for children from Mayan communities in Guatemala, as well as for European middle-class American children in US. Children are learning the kinds of activities that are important in their communities.

The author notes that we (the adults) are members of our communities, but we take it for granted if we haven’t seen other variations that exists around the world in the kinds of cultural practices that people engage in and consider normal wherever their background is. If we’ve only been in one cultural setting is very difficult to understand your own culture. We are not aware of our own culture until we see alternatives in other places.

One of the important cultural differences that Rogoff observed in her research in US and Guatemala are the learning opportunities for children. If children from Mayan communities are involved in activities from an early age, in European middle class communities in US children are segregated from the adults setting. Mayan children have the community to explore, but US children have restriction for where they can go, with whom etc, and have little to observe of adult work.

3 lessons from Social Pedagogy for migration studies

The international mobility at Ghent University gave me the opportunity to meet great people. I had the chance to have as promoter Prof. Michel Vandenbroeck, and to collaborate with PhD’s from the research team that I integrated for three moths at the Department of Social Work and Social Pedagogy. With my colleague, Floor Verhaeghe, we conducted this interview on social pedagogy perspective and migration studies.

Imiscoe PhD Blog

Social pedagogy: asking questions about implicit choices

By Floor Verhaeghe and Carmen Draghici 

Prof. dr. Michel Vandenbroeck is the head of the department of Social Work and Social Pedagogy at Ghent University. His main research interests are early childhood, parent support, diversity and social in/exclusion. He is also Chairman of the Centre for Innovation in the Early Years (VBJK), an organization that works on policy-oriented studies and pedagogical innovations in early childhood care, education, and parent support.

MV-2.PNG Professor Vandenbroeck, what could we learn from a social pedagogical perspective when studying migration and integration?

Let me first say that I do not believe in strict discipline boundaries. I think those boundaries are merely a way to preserve one’s own career. So, I can tell you something about what I think is important from a social pedagogical perspective and how that might relate to migration and integration research, but…

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Visiting a Freinet preschool in Ghent, Belgium. A child-centered pedagogy

Good ways of approaching preschool education exist and I am so happy I just observed one of these! It’s good to have nice colleagues at university who are young mothers: they can get you in theirs son or daughter’s classroom 🙂

In Ghent, (BE), preschools are mostly public settings, free of charge. Besides the traditional preschools (eg: catholic preschools), alternative education is proposed in the neighborhood or close to families with young children. I had the chance to spend one morning in a Freinet’s pedagogy preschool and to observe children and teachers during their daily activities.

I must say it was a pleasant surprise for me to discover several aspects related to a pedagogical approach that takes into account children’s point of view. I will name a few:

  • children get to choose what workshop to participate to (arts, linguistic etc);
  • children propose and participate to their own projects;
  • children give feedback on the work their classmates did in order to identify challenges and the way to overcome them (e. g. : a girl drew a panda today, and her classmates noticed it didn’t have the right number of legs; together with the teacher, and based on a concrete example – a panda bear toy – they arrived at the right answer)
  • children learn in spontaneous ways and by discussing elements that happen in the daily life (e.g. : hearing a sound of an ambulance from outside, one boy wants to know what it is; children give answers and teacher completes them )
  • children’s mess is not an issue! (e. g. : doing arts with liquid paint can be very messy, especially for 3 years old children; but the teacher doesn’t seem to be bothered – she helps them cleaning up)

There are many other examples. These practices are based on  Célestin Freinet’s approach. The principles he proposed as an alternative education for children are the following:

– Pedagogy of Work (Pédagogie du travail) – meaning that pupils learned by making useful products or providing useful services.
– Co-operative Learning (Travail coopératif) – based on co-operation in the productive process.
– Enquiry-based Learning (Tâtonnement expérimental) – trial and error method involving group work.
– The Natural Method (Méthode naturelle) – based on an inductive, global approach.
– Centres of Interest (Complexe d’intérêt) – based on children’s learning interests and curiosity. (History of Freinet Pedagogy, Gerald SCHLEMMINGER, University of Paris XI)


For more info about the Belgium (Flemish Community) education:


What do you do on an international mobility as a PhD candidate?

In France, and other countries, PhD candidates have the possibility to apply for scholarship for an international mobility in a country they choose. In my case it’s Belgium, and I had the opportunity to integrate Prof. Michel Vandembroeck’s team at the Department of Social Work and Social Pedagogy, at Ghent University. Besides the nice people and the good working environment in this Faculty, the great part is that here I have enriching exchanges with professors and colleagues related to the subject of my thesis – early childhood education and cultural diversity.

colaj-biblioteca-ghentPhoto by Carmen C. Draghici, Library of Ghent University

If the main objective of this mobility is to have insights on my research topic from an international point of view and a comparative one, there are also other tasks and activities I have to complete. These are part of the « socialization » inside the host university and they can consist in formal or informal activities such as:

  • conference
  • group meeting on publication
  • migration group discussion
  • exchanges with colleagues on similar topics or methods
  • meeting with the promoter on issues related to your project
  • borrowing books from the Faculty’s library
  • reading papers written by your colleagues
  • learning how to recharge the coffee machine of the department’s kitchen (still not able to!) and other practicalities in the daily life of a PhD candidate in Ghent
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